indie là gì

This article is about independently-produced music. For the "do-it-yourself" music aesthetic associated with indie, see Lo-fi music. For other uses, see Indie music (disambiguation).

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The Wedding Present, a British indie band

Independent music (also commonly known as indie music, or simply indie) is music produced independently from commercial record labels or their subsidiaries; this may include an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach lớn recording and publishing.

As a genre term, "indie" may or may not comprise independently produced music. Many independent music artists tự not fall into a single defined musical style or genre, with their self-published music being able lớn be categorized into diverse genres without the expectations associated with commercial music. The term 'indie' or 'independent music' can be traced back lớn as early as the 1920s: in the context of referencing independent film companies. It was later used lớn classify an independent band or record producer.[1][2]

Record labels[edit]

Independent labels have a long history of promoting developments in popular music, stretching back lớn the post-war period in the United States, with labels such as Sun Records, King Records, and Stax.[3]

In the United Kingdom during the 1950s and 1960s, the major record companies had so sánh much power that independent labels struggled lớn become established, until the launch of new concepts lượt thích Virgin Records.[4] Several British producers and artists launched independent labels as outlets for their work and artists they liked; the majority failed as commercial ventures or were bought by the major labels.[3]

In the United States, independent labels and distributors often banded together lớn khuông organizations lớn promote trade and parity within the industry. The Recording Academy, famous as the organization behind the Grammy Awards, began in the 1950s as an organization of 25 independent record labels including Herald, Ember, and Atlantic Records. The 1970s saw the founding of the National Association of Independent Record Distributors (NAIRD), which became A2IM in 2004. Smaller organizations also existed including the Independent Music Association (IMA), founded by Don Kulak in the late 1980s. At its zenith, it had 1,000 independent labels on its thành viên rosters. The 1990s brought Affiliated Independent Record Companies (AIRCO), whose most notable thành viên was upstart punk-thrash rock label Mystic Records, and The Independent Music Retailer's Association (IMRA), a short-lived organization founded by Mark Wilkins and Don Kulak. The latter is most notable for a lawsuit involving co-op money it filed on behalf of its thành viên Digital Distributors in conjunction with Warehouse Record Stores.[5] The adjudication of the case grossed $178,000,000 from the distribution arms of major labels. The proceeds were distributed amongst all plaintiffs.

During the punk rock era, the number of independent labels grew.[3] The UK Indie Chart was first compiled in 1980, and independent distribution became better organized from the late 1970s onward.[6] From the late 1970s into the 1980s, certain UK independent labels (such as Rough Trade, Fast Product, Cherry Red, Factory, Glass, Industrial, Cheree Records and Creation) came lớn contribute something in terms of aesthetic identity lớn the acts whose records they released.

Around the late 1980s, Seattle-based Sub Pop Records was at the center of the grunge scene. In the late 1990s and into the 2000s as the advent of MP3 files and digital tải về sites such as Apple's iTunes Store changed the recording industry, an indie neo-soul scene soon emerged from the urban underground soul scenes of London, Thành Phố New York, Philadelphia, Chicago and Los Angeles, primarily due lớn commercial radio and the major labels' biased focus on the marketing, promotion & airplay of pop and hip hop music during this period. Independent labels such as Dome Record and Expansion Records in the U.K. and Burger, Wiener, and Ubiquity Records in the U.S. and a plethora of others around the world continue lớn release independent bands and music.

Going major versus staying independent[edit]

Many acts choose lớn go from an independent label lớn a major label if given the opportunity, as major labels have considerably more power and financial means lớn promote and distribute products, sometimes increasing the chances of greater success.[7] Some acts, however, may choose not lớn go lớn a major label if given the opportunity, as independence generally offers more freedom.[7]

Similarly, others may become independent label acts after having already experienced recording on a major label. Bradley Joseph asked lớn be let go from his major label giảm giá with Narada/Virgin Records and subsequently became an independent artist. He says, "As an independent, business is a prime concern and can take over if not controlled.[8] A lot of musicians don't learn the business. You just have lớn be well-rounded in both areas. You have lớn understand publishing. You have lớn understand how you make money, what's in demand, and what helps you make the most out of your talent.[9] But some artists just want lớn be involved in the music and don't lượt thích the added problems or have the personality lớn work with both". Joseph suggests newer artists read and study both courses and pick one that best suits their own needs and wants.[8]

A successful independent label with a strong musical reputation can be very appealing lớn a major label. Major labels look at independent labels lớn stay current with the ever-changing music scene.[10]

If an act moves lớn a major label from an independent, they are awarded greater opportunity for success, but it does not guarantee success. About one in ten albums released by major labels make a profit for the label.[11] Some artists have recorded for independent record companies for their entire careers and have had solid careers. Independent labels tend lớn be more open creatively, however, an independent label that is creatively productive is not necessarily financially lucrative. Independent labels are often operations of one, two, or only half a dozen people, with almost no outside assistance and run rẩy out of tiny offices.[12] This lack of resources can make it difficult for a band lớn make revenue from sales. It can also be more difficult for the indie label lớn get its artists' music played on radio stations around the country when compared lớn the pull of a major label. A testament lớn this fact could be that since 1991, there have only been twelve independent label albums that have reached the number one spot on the US Billboard 200 Album Chart. However, dozens of independent albums have reached the top 40 of the Billboard 200.

Many current artists use their own resources lớn produce, record, market and release music through Spotify, SoundCloud, and other streaming platforms with social truyền thông media in a direct, do-it-yourself manner allowing creative distribution.[13] There is the potential for artists lớn gain large numbers of streams on Spotify if their music are included in certain popular playlists.[14]

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Distribution methods[edit]

Some independent labels distribute their own product while others distribute via a major label. Independents may be owned by a major label who then distribute for them.[15]

It can be very difficult for independent bands lớn sign lớn a record label that may not be familiar with their specific style. It can take years of dedicated effort, self-promotion, and rejections before landing a contract with either an independent or major record label. Bands that are ready lớn go this route need lớn be sure they are prepared both in terms of the music they offer as well as their realistic expectations for success.[16]

Major label contracts[edit]

Most major label artists earn a 10–16% royalty rate.[17] However, before a band is able lớn receive any of their royalties, they must clear their label for all of their debts, known as recoupable expenses. These expenses arise from the cost of such things as album packaging and artwork, tour tư vấn, and video clip production. An additional part of the recoupable expenses are the artist's advance. An advance is lượt thích a loan. It allows the artist lớn have money lớn live and record with until their record is released. However, before they can gain any royalties, the advance must be paid back in full lớn the record label. Since only the most successful artists recoup production and marketing costs, an unsuccessful artist's debt may carry over lớn their next album, meaning that they see little lớn no royalties.

Major label advances are generally much larger kêu ca independent labels can offer. Major labels are able lớn offer artists advances in the range of $150,000–$500,000. Some smaller independent labels offer no advance at all; just recording cost, album packaging, and artwork, which is also recoupable. If an artist gets no advance at all, they owe their record company less money, thus allowing them lớn start receiving royalty checks earlier; that is, if sales warrant any royalty checks at all. However, since the record label typically recoups so sánh many different costs, it is actually lớn the artist's advantage lớn get the largest advance possible because they may not see any royalties checks for quite some time; again, that is, if sales warrant any royalties checks at all. Another advantage of getting an advance; the advance money the artist owes the label is only recoupable through the artist's royalties, not through a return of the advance itself.[18]

Independent label contracts[edit]

Independent label contracts typically resemble contracts offered by major labels because they have similar legal liabilities lớn define before representing an artist. There are differences, however, usually with regards lớn less advances, lower studio costs, lower royalties, but fewer album options. Due lớn financial constraints, independents typically spend much less on marketing and promotion kêu ca major labels. But with lower royalties rates typically paid lớn artists and lower production and promotion costs, independent labels generally can turn a profit off lower volumes of sales kêu ca a major label can.

Although not common,[19] there have been instances of profit-sharing giao dịch with independent labels in which an act can get as much as 40–50% of the net profits. In this type of contract, the net gain after all expenses have been taken out are divided between the label and artist by a negotiated percentage. However, giao dịch in this khuông can take longer for an artist lớn gain any profits, if at all, since all expenses – such as recording, manufacturing, publicity and marketing, music videos, etc., are also taken into trương mục. Only if an independent artist becomes vastly popular are giao dịch of this type more advantageous.

Independent labels rely heavily on personal networking, or "word of mouth", lớn expose their acts.[20] Independent labels tend lớn avoid high budget marketing tactics, which usually does not fall in the budget of an independent label. This of course contributes lớn the overall lower production cost, and may help the artist lớn receive royalties sooner, if warranted. Major labels tend lớn watch indie label artists and gauge their success, and may offer lớn sign acts from independents when their contract is up. The major may also request lớn buy the contract of the act from the independent label before the contract is up, giving the independent label a hefty financial payment if they choose lớn sell the contract.

Competition between independent and traditional publishing[edit]

Independent music sales volume is difficult lớn track, but in 2010 independent retailer CD Baby claimed lớn have sold over 5 million CDs during its lifetime.[21] CD Baby no longer reports its number of CDs sold, but in 2010 claimed lớn have paid a total of $107 million lớn artists over its lifetime and currently claims that this figure is now over $200 million.[22]

Apple has announced that they have sold over 16 billion songs through their iTunes service.[23] Most of this is "mainstream" music, and doesn't reflect access by new nội dung producers lớn the market, but it does indicate significant competition with traditional CD sales.

Whether the sales from non-traditional sources come mostly from tapping into an expanding market or from siphoning sales away from traditional CD distribution is difficult lớn assess in the face of the RIAA's claim that music piracy causes 12.5 billion dollars' damage lớn the US economy annually.[24]

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See also[edit]

  • Underground music
  • Indie music scenes


  1. ^ "What is Indie Music? Activ8te's Comprehensive Guide for New Listeners and Musicians". Niels Provos. Retrieved 2023-02-24.
  2. ^ Record Label Pursuit: Mistakes made by Upcoming Artistes Archived 2018-10-08 at the Wayback Machine,, October 08, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c Rogan, Johnny (1992) "Introduction" in The Guinness Who's Who of Indie and New Wave Music, Guinness Publishing, ISBN 0-85112-579-4
  4. ^ "Record labels that rocked our world". The Independent. 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  5. ^ Jeffrey, Don (June 10, 1995) "Retailer Sues Majors for CD Price Fixing" in Billboard Magazine, Billboard Publishing
  6. ^ Lazell, Barry (1997) "Indie Hits 1980–1989", Cherry Red Books, ISBN 0-9517206-9-4
  7. ^ a b Agnew, Harriet (17 February 2018). "France's indie music labels find their voice". Financial Times. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  8. ^ a b Wheeler, Fred (2002). "Interview with Bradley Joseph". Archived from the original on 2004-11-01. Retrieved 2006-12-21.
  9. ^ Polta, Anne (2007-02-08). "Continuing Journey: Bradley Joseph sustains music career with songwriting, recording". Minnesota: West Central Tribune. Archived from the original on 2008-03-29. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
  10. ^ "Deals That Await Successful Independent Music Labels – Christopher Knab". Guitar9. 2016-08-01. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-03-24. Retrieved 2006-04-26.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Barclay, Michael. "King Cobb Steelie Simply Rational". Archived from the original on 2007-02-09. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  13. ^ "Music Festival Blog | United States | Vibe with Ade". Music Festival Blog | United States | Vibe with Ade. 16 February 2018. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
  14. ^ Aguiar, Luis; Waldfogel, Joel (September 2021). "Platforms, Power, and Promotion: Evidence from Spotify Playlists*". The Journal of Industrial Economics. 69 (3): 653–691. doi:10.1111/joie.12263. ISSN 0022-1821. S2CID 215728062.
  15. ^ Ricci, Benjamin. "Independent Labels: What's the Deal?". Performer Mag. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  16. ^ McDonald, Heather (2006-06-19). "Indie Music Band Tips: Finding A Record Label". Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  17. ^ "Indie of Major? Lee & Thompson". Archived from the original on 27 May 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
  18. ^ Ricci, Benjamin. "Independent Label vs. Major Label Contracts". Performer Mag. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  19. ^ News, B. (Jul 7, 2006). "EMI and new music label plan profit-sharing giảm giá with artists". The Thành Phố New York Times.|
  20. ^ Morris, C. (Aug 25, 2001). "Beating the indie odds?: Label entrepreneurs make a go in tough market". Billboard. Vol. 113, no. 1. p. 80.
  21. ^ "Welcome to". Archived from the original on 2016-09-17. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  22. ^ "About CD Baby – The CD Baby Story". Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  23. ^ "Apple: 16 billion iTunes songs downloaded, 300 million iPods sold". Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  24. ^ "RIAA - Who Music Theft Hurts - December 18, 2015". Recording Industry Association of America. Archived from the original on 2015-12-18. Retrieved 2015-12-25.

Further reading[edit]

  • Fonarow, Wendy Cagur. Empire of Dirt: The Aesthetics and Rituals of British Indie Music. Wesleyan, 2006. ISBN 0-8195-6811-2